The Waterfield Building, located on the grounds of historic Fort Norfolk, opened in 1983 and serves as the headquarters for the Norfolk District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The Corps of Engineers established a permanent presence in 1879, when Capt. Charles B. Phillips opened the U.S. Engineers Office in the city's Custom House. The Army designated the office "Norfolk District" in 1908 and, in 1923, District operations moved from the Custom House to Fort Norfolk. The Waterfield Building is named in honor of Harold H. Waterfield who began work with the District as a boatman in 1923 and rose through the ranks to become chief of the District's Survey Branch. Waterfield was a pioneer in automatic hydrographic survey systems and is credited with creating the Craney Island Dredged Material Management Area, which ushered in a new age of dredged materials management.